McNab S, Duke T, South M, et al. 140 mmol/L of sodium versus 77 mmol/L of sodium in maintenance intravenous fluid therapy for children in hospital (PIMS): a randomised controlled double-blind trial. Lancet. 2014 Nov 28.
BACKGROUND: Use of hypotonic intravenous fluid to maintain hydration in children in hospital has been associated with hyponatraemia, leading to neurological morbidity and mortality. We aimed to assess whether use of fluid solutions with a higher sodium concentration reduced the risk of hyponatraemia compared with use of hypotonic solutions.