Webb TN, Shatat IF, Miyashita Y. Therapy of acute hypertension in hospitalized children and adolescents. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2014 Apr;16(4):425.
Acute hypertension (HTN) in hospitalized children and adolescents occurs relatively frequently, and in some cases, if not recognized and treated promptly, it can lead to hypertensive crisis with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. In contrast to adults, where acute HTN is most likely due to uncontrolled primary HTN, children and adolescents with acute HTN are more likely to have secondary HTN. This review will briefly cover evaluation of acute HTN and various age-specific etiologies of secondary HTN and provide more in-depth discussion on treatment targets, potential risks of acute HTN therapy, and available pediatric data on intravenous and oral antihypertensive agents, and it proposes treatment schema including unique therapy of specific secondary HTN scenarios.
Chaturvedi S, et al. Pharmacological interventions for hypertension in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 1;(2):CD008117.
Overall, there are sparse data informing the use of antihypertensive agents in children, with outcomes reported limited to blood pressure and not end organ damage. The most data are available for candesartan, for which there is low-quality evidence of a modest lowering effect on blood pressure. We did not find evidence of a consistent dose response relationship for escalating doses of angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. All agents appear safe, at least in the short-term.
Chandar J, Zilleruelo G. Hypertensive crisis in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 May; 27(5):741-51.
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.
Meyers K, Falkner B. Hypertension in children and adolescents: an approach to management of complex hyper-tension in pediatric patients. Curr Hypertens Rep.
Although primary (essential) hypertension is detectable in childhood, secondary causes of hypertension must be considered in evaluating and managing hypertension in children and adolescents. Very young children and children with severe hypertension may have an underlying cause of the hypertension. Interventions to control elevated blood pressure (BP) are clinically important for all children with high BP. Nonpharmacologic approaches are recommended for all asymptomatic children with hypertension and prehypertension. Some children and adolescents will require pharmacologic therapy to control BP and to optimize organ protection. Recent advancements in pediatric clinical trials of antihypertensive agents have provided data on BP-lowering effects and safety in children. Little has been published on the choice and use of various classes of antihypertensive drugs for management of secondary hypertension in children and adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical management of specific types of secondary hypertension in pediatric patients.
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