Brandström P, Hansson S. Long-term, low-dose prophylaxis against urinary tract infections in young children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2015 Mar;30(3):425-32.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) affects about 2 % of boys and 8 % of girls during the first 6 years of life with Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen. Symptomatic UTI causes discomfort and distress, and carries a risk of inducing renal damage. The strong correlation between febrile UTI, dilating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and renal scarring led to the introduction of antibiotic prophylaxis for children with VUR to reduce the rate of UTI recurrence. It became common practice to use prophylaxis for children with VUR and other urinary tract abnormalities. This policy has been challenged because of a lack of scientific support. Now, randomized controlled studies are available that compare prophylaxis to no treatment or placebo. They show that children with normal urinary tracts or non-dilating VUR do not benefit from prophylaxis. Dilating VUR may still be an indication for prophylaxis in young children. After the first year of life, boys have very few recurrences and do not benefit from prophylaxis. Girls with dilating VUR, on the other hand, are more prone to recurrences and benefit from prophylaxis. There has been a decline in the use of prophylaxis due to questioning of its efficacy, increasing bacterial resistance, and a propensity to low adherence to medication. Alternative measures to reduce UTI recurrences should be emphasized. However, in selected patients carefully followed, prophylaxis can protect from recurrent UTI and long-term sequelae. 1. There is a strong correlation between UTI, VUR, and renal scarring. 2. Children with normal urinary tracts or non-dilating VUR do not benefit from prophylaxis. 3. Young children, mainly girls, with dilating VUR are at risk of recurrent UTI and acquired renal scarring and seem to gain from antibiotic prophylaxis. 4. Increasing bacterial resistance and low adherence with prescribed medication is a major obstacle to successful antibiotic prophylaxis.
Greenfield SP. Antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric urology: an update. Curr Urol Rep. 2011 Apr;12(2):126-31.
This article discusses the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of three common conditions encountered by the pediatric urologist: 1) children with urinary infection and structurally and neurologically normal urinary tracts; 2) children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR); and 3) children with prenatally diagnosed ureteropelvic and ureterovesical obstruction. The literature remains unclear and contradictory. Additional significant risk factors for recurrent infection are age, circumcision status in boys, and toileting function. The evidence for the use of prophylaxis is best in those with VUR, although not everyone with VUR must be on medication. In the absence of definitive evidence, the clinician must individualize the treatment of each patient and family.
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Williams G, Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Mar 16;(3): CD001534.
Long-term antibiotics appear to reduce the risk of repeat symptomatic UTI in susceptible children but the benefit is small and must be considered together with the increased risk of microbial resistance.
Dai B, et al. Long-term antibiotics for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2010 Jul;95(7):499-508.
Evidence is lacking that prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of recurrent childhood UTI. Since the reviewed studies had limitations in methodological design, large scale, high quality, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials are required.
More PubMed results on prophylactic antibiotics for UTI prevention.