As chosen by David Lloyd, MD
Petersen LR, et al. Zika Virus. N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 21;374(16):1552-63.
“In 1947, a study of yellow fever yielded the first isolation of a new virus, from the blood of a sentinel rhesus macaque that had been placed in the Zika Forest of Uganda.  Zika virus remained in relative obscurity for nearly 70 years; then, within the span of just 1 year, Zika virus was introduced into Brazil from the Pacific Islands and spread rapidly throughout the Americas.  It became the first major infectious disease linked to human birth defects to be discovered in more than half a century and created such global alarm that the World Health Organization (WHO) would declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.  This review describes the current understanding of the epidemiology, transmission, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of Zika virus infection, as well as the future outlook with regard to this disease.”
Doan S, Maehara CK, Chaparro JD, Lu S, Liu R, Graham A, Berry E, Hsu N, Kanegaye JT, Lloyd DD, Ohno-Machado L, Burns JC, Tremoulet AH; Pediatric Emergency Medicine Kawasaki Disease Research Group. Building a Natural Language Processing Tool to Identify Patients With High Clinical Suspicion for Kawasaki Disease from Emergency Department Notes. Acad Emerg Med. 2016 May;23(5):628-36.
KD-NLP showed comparable performance to clinician manual chart review for identification of pediatric ED patients with a high suspicion for KD. This tool could be incorporated into the ED electronic health record system to alert providers to consider the diagnosis of KD. KD-NLP could serve as a model for decision support for other conditions in the ED.
Schwartz RH, et al. A Reappraisal of the Minimum Duration of Antibiotic Treatment Before Approval of Return to School for Children With Streptococcal Pharyngitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Dec;34(12):1302-4.
Even in the late afternoon, a full dose of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg) administered after notification of positive RADT results for GAS resulted in nondetection of GAS in 91% of children the next morning. All children treated with amoxicillin for “strep throat” by 5 PM of day 1 may, if afebrile and improved, attend school on day 2.
Raith W, et al. Laser Acupuncture for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics. 2015 Nov;136(5):876-84.
This first randomized controlled trial presents data on newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome treated with laser acupuncture. The findings suggest that adjuvant laser acupuncture has the potential to reduce duration of morphine therapy and length of hospital stay.
Parikh K, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Dexamethasone versus Prednisone in Children Hospitalized with Asthma. J Pediatr. 2015 Sep;167(3):639-44.e1.
Dexamethasone may be considered an alternative to prednisone/prednisolone for children hospitalized with asthma exacerbation not requiring admission to intensive care.
Wainwright CE, et al. Lumacaftor-Ivacaftor in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for Phe508del CFTR. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 16;373(3):220-31.
These data show that lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor provided a benefit for patients with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and others; TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01807923 and NCT01807949.).
Pereda MA, et al. Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):714-22.
Current evidence supports LUS as an imaging alternative for the diagnosis of childhood pneumonia. Recommendations to train pediatricians on LUS for diagnosis of pneumonia may have important implications in different clinical settings.
Irwin AD, et al. Etiology of childhood bacteremia and timely antibiotics administration in the emergency department. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):635-42.
Changes in the etiology of pediatric bacteremia have implications for prompt, appropriate empirical treatment. Increasingly, pediatric bacteremia in the ED is health care associated, which increases length of inpatient stay. Prompt, effective antimicrobial administration requires new tools to improve recognition, in addition to continued etiological surveillance.
Jain S, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 26;372(9):835-45.
The burden of hospitalization for children with community-acquired pneumonia was highest among the very young, with respiratory viruses the most commonly detected causes of pneumonia. (Funded by the Influenza Division of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.).
Du Toit G, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 26;372(9):803-13.
The early introduction of peanuts significantly decreased the frequency of the development of peanut allergy among children at high risk for this allergy and modulated immune responses to peanuts. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00329784.).
Cheng A, et al. Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a CPR feedback device and refresher simulations (CPR CARES Study): a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Feb;169(2):137-44.
The quality of CPR provided by health care professionals is poor. Using novel and practical technology, JIT training before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA, alone or in combination, improves compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for CPR that are associated with better outcomes.
Keren R, et al. Comparative effectiveness of intravenous vs oral antibiotics for postdischarge treatment of acute osteomyelitis in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2015
Given the magnitude and seriousness of PICC complications, clinicians should reconsider the practice of treating otherwise healthy children with acute osteomyelitis with prolonged intravenous antibiotics after hospital discharge when an equally effective oral alternative exists.
Older age and multiple medical conditions were associated with increased rates of hospital-associated VTE. These data can contribute to the design of future clinical trials to prevent hospital-associated VTE in high-risk children.