Agwu AL, Fairlie L. Antiretroviral treatment, management challenges and outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013 Jun 18;16:18579.
Three decades into the HIV/AIDS epidemic there is a growing cohort of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents globally. Their survival into adolescence and beyond represent one of the major successes in the battle against the disease that has claimed the lives of millions of children. This population is diverse and there are unique issues related to antiretroviral treatment and management. Drawing from the literature and experience, this paper discusses several broad areas related to antiretroviral management, including: 1) diverse presentation of HIV, (2) use of combination antiretroviral therapy including in the setting of co-morbidities and rapid growth and development, (3) challenges of cART, including nonadherence, resistance, and management of the highly treatment-experienced adolescent patient, (4) additional unique concerns and management issues related to PHIV-infected adolescents, including the consequences of longterm inflammation, risk of transmission, and transitions to adult care. In each section, the experience in both resource-rich and limited settings are discussed with the aim of highlighting the differences and importantly the similarities, to share lessons learnt and provide insight into the multi-faceted approaches that may be needed to address the challenges faced by this unique and resilient population.
Berry SA, Gebo KA, Rutstein RM, et al. Trends in hospitalizations among children and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 May;33(5):488-94.
While the declines in hospitalizations are reassuring, continued efforts are needed to address the persistently high infectious and non-infectious morbidity among PHIV patients. Innovative strategies may be most critical for 17-24 year-olds. Lack of increases in cardiovascular and renal admissions provides modest, preliminary reassurance against severe non-infectious complications from longstanding HIV infection and antiretroviral exposure.
Monge MC, Samples CL. Primary care for children and adolescents living with HIV. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Aug;24(4):453-61.
In addition to standard age-appropriate healthcare maintenance, care of HIV-positive children and adolescents should have special emphasis on evaluation for possible cardiovascular and metabolic complications of HIV infection and its treatment. Goals of care are moving toward chronic disease management and improved long-term health.
Chu C, Selwyn PA. Complications of HIV infection: a systems-based approach. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Feb 15;83(4):395-406.
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop multiple complications and comorbidities. Opportunistic infections should always be considered in the evaluation of symptomatic patients with advanced HIV/AIDS, although the overall incidence of these infections has decreased. Primary care of HIV infection includes the early detection of some complications through screening at-risk and symptomatic patients with routine laboratory monitoring (e.g., comprehensive metabolic and lipid panels) and validated tools (e.g., the HIV Dementia Scale). Treatment of many chronic complications is similar for patients with HIV infection and those without infection; however, combination antiretroviral therapy has shown benefit for some conditions, such as HIV-associated nephropathy. For other complications, such as cardiovascular disease and lipoatrophy, management may include switching antiretroviral regimens to reduce exposure to HIV medications known to cause toxicity.
Ross AC, et al. Secondary complications and co-infections in the HIV-infected adolescent in the antiretroviral era. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011 Jun;24(3):212-8.
HIV-infected adolescents are at a high risk of sexually transmitted infections. A careful, age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate inquiry into the individual’s sexual behavior to assess risk is paramount, in addition to regular screening at medical visits. Treating co-infections is not only important for HIV-infected individuals, but also limits HIV transmission to others. In addition, monitoring and addressing modifiable secondary risk factors for complications such as renal disease, osteopenia or osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease are critical, well before the onset of clinically apparent disease. Using antiretroviral therapy to suppress viral replication and inflammation appears to be a promising strategy for decreasing secondary complication risk, and likely overshadows the toxicities associated with the long-term use of certain antiretrovirals.
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