Altaf F, Heran MK, Wilson LF. Back pain in children and adolescents. Bone Joint J. 2014 Jun;96-B(6):717-23.
Back pain is a common symptom in children and adolescents. Here we review the important causes, of which defects and stress reactions of the pars interarticularis are the most common identifiable problems. More serious pathology, including malignancy and infection, needs to be excluded when there is associated systemic illness. Clinical evaluation and management may be difficult and always requires a thorough history and physical examination. Diagnostic imaging is obtained when symptoms are persistent or severe. Imaging is used to reassure the patient, relatives and carers, and to guide management.
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Jackson C, McLaughlin K, Teti B. Back pain in children: a holistic approach to diagnosis and management. J Pediatr Health Care. 2011 Sep-Oct;25(5):284-93.
Back pain is a relatively common complaint presenting to the primary care practitioner and is addressed with increasing frequency in the pediatric literature. Back pain is not uncommon in adolescents and often is symptomatic of a relatively benign musculoskeletal etiology. Back pain in children less than 10 years of age and most especially less than 4 years of age can signal a more alarming underlying condition. Evaluation requires a complete history including psychosocial and cultural considerations. Additionally a thorough clinical examination, strategic lab work and judicious imaging are imperative. Management and appropriate referral is specific to the underlying disease process. A holistic, individualized plan of care with inherent involvement of the child and parent/caregiver is essential to ensure safety and enhance outcomes.
Haidar R, Saad S, Khoury NJ, Musharrafieh U. Practical approach to the child presenting with back pain. Eur J Pediatr. 2011 Feb;170(2):149-56.
Back pain may be the presenting symptom of many children attending to pediatric health care settings. As such, awareness to the common etiologies of back pain in this subgroup of patients remains essential as it guides appropriate diagnosis. Although several clues may be derived from the child’s history and physical examination, imaging techniques may be required to confirm the underlying diagnosis. This review summarizes the most commonly encountered causes of back pain in children and highlights diagnostic approaches that will ensure early diagnosis and intervention for a more favorable outcome.
Davis PJ, Williams HJ. The investigation and management of back pain in children. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2008 Jun;93(3):73-83.
Back pain in children and adolescents is probably much less common than in adults, but its true incidence is unknown. Although back pain has traditionally been considered a rare and often sinister presentation in the paediatric age group, recent literature now suggests that a relatively high number of children do experience back pain, but only a small proportion seek medical attention. For the majority of children with back pain no underlying cause is identified, but some require investigation to exclude serious underlying pathology. Laboratory and imaging investigations should be targeted towards those with “red flag” symptoms and signs. Imaging studies, particularly MRI, have an important role in diagnosis of underlying pathology such as infection or malignancy.
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