Rhabdoid tumors in children

Clinical and pathological features of paediatric malignant rhabdoid tumours. (2010)

“Malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRT) and their central nervous system (CNS) counterparts atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) are rare, highly aggressive malignant neoplasms of childhood. Although there are isolated reports of long-term survival with intensive, multimodal therapy, outcomes are generally poor.

In a final cohort of 34 cases, overall survival was 17.4%, with median survival 10.1 months. Outcome in patients aged ❤ years was significantly worse (median survival 6.2 months vs. 19.2 months). Data demonstrated a statistically significant benefit of radiotherapy (median survival 14.9 months vs. 6.6 months), although this analysis is confounded by the impact of patient age. There were four long-term survivors (>30 months), all of whom received chemotherapy with or without surgical resection or radiotherapy. In the present study, immunohistochemistry revealed no significant staining for either c-Erb or c-Met in any case, suggesting that targeting these molecules is unlikely to be of benefit in treating MRT/ATRT.”

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Age, stage, and radiotherapy, but not primary tumor site, affects the outcome of patients with malignant rhabdoid tumors. (2010)

“For the 229 patients included in our data, who were diagnosed from 1986 to 2005, primary tumors were located in the central nervous system (CNS) (35%), kidneys (20%), and extra-renal non-cranial sites (ERNC-MRTs) (45%). Most patients with renal and CNS tumors were less than 18 years old (87% and 96%, respectively) while more than half of the patients with ERNC-MRTs (61%) were adults. Among staged tumors, 23% were localized, 34% regional, and 43% distant. Renal tumors had significantly more metastatic disease (47%; P = 0.006) than ERNC-MRTs. The estimated 5-year survival for the entire group was 33 +/- 3.4% (SE). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age at diagnosis (2-18 years), localized stage of tumors, and use of radiotherapy were significantly associated with improved survival. Adults had a better outcome than young children (<2 years old) but a poorer outcome than older children (2-18 years old); tumor stage, but not radiotherapy use, affected outcome in adults. The survival and prognostic factors of children diagnosed before and after 2000 did not differ significantly.”

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Rhabdoid tumors in children: prognostic factors in 70 patients diagnosed in Germany. (2008)

“We retrospectively analysed the data of 70 patients (41 boys and 29 girls) with Rhabdoid tumors (RT) regardless of localisation, recorded in the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR) from 1984 to 1999. The primary tumor was located in the kidney in 32 cases, in the central nervous system (CNS) in 13 cases and in the soft tissue in 25 cases. Variables examined were tumor stage, sex, age at diagnosis, surgical radicality, radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic regimens. Metastatic disease at diagnosis was observed in 18 of the 70 individuals. Outcome of this group was very poor with a 5-year overall survival of 11%. There were no differences in survival between males and females, or younger and older children. Chemotherapeutic regimens were mainly given according to the primary site of the tumor. Radiotherapy was given in 28 of the 70 patients with a mean dose of 35 Gray, though this did not improve the outcome. Overall survival of the whole cohort was 27% at 5 years and there was no significant difference in prognosis regarding the different locations of the tumor (kidney 24%, soft tissue 30%, CNS 29%). In conclusion, RT in infants and children has a dismal prognosis, independent from localisation. The presence of metastasis at diagnosis seems to be the only prognostic factor of outcome.”

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Extra-renal non-cerebral rhabdoid tumours. (2008)

“Rhabdoid tumours (RTs) are aggressive malignancies of childhood, mainly occurring in the kidney and brain. We describe a national multi-centre retrospective analysis of extra-renalnon-cranial RTs (ERRTs). ERRTs share the same chemosensitivity, early recurrence, and poor prognosis asrenal and cerebral RTs. No chemotherapy regimen demonstrates a superior response.”

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Extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumors in childhood. (2007)

“Fourteen children were diagnosed with MRT over the 20-year study period. The median age at presentation was 22.5 months (range, 0.5-108 months). Five patients had renal primary tumors, and 9 patients had extrarenal tumors. Eleven of 14 patients had stage III or IV disease at diagnosis. Five patients (35.7%) were long-term survivors. The time to disease progression was rapid (mean, 3.6 months). There were no recurrences or deaths beyond 10 months after diagnosis. All survivors received multimodal therapy, including both chemotherapy and surgery with or without radiation. In addition, 2 patients received high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue (HSCT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and local tumor control. Both of those patients were long-term survivors. There were no survivors after disease recurrence or progression.”

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More PubMed results on rhabdoid tumors.

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